Adverbs of manner tell "how." They usually modify a verb or verb phrase and often end in the suffix -ly. For example, let's think about how Lucy skates, how Brent skis, how Wendy surfs, and how Charles C. Pinckney governed:
Lucy skates happily.
Lucy might also skate gracefully, smoothly, or slowly.
Brent skis recklessly.
Brent might also ski hastily, gleefully, or clumsily.
Wendy surfs fanatically.
Wendy might also surf beautifully, expertly, or uncertainly.
Charles C. Pinckney governed cautiously.
Charles C. Pinckney might have governed responsibly, expertly, cleverly, irresponsibly, or inconsistently. These are all adverbs of manner, answering the question "how."
Write the adverbs of manner from these sentences:
We identify adverbs of manner:
Descriptive adjectives often end with suffixes such as -able, -ful, -ive, or -ous. Below are the adjective and adverb forms of some nouns. Notice that the adverb of manner is formed by adding -ly to the adjective.
Of course, not every word that ends in -ly is an adverb. Ghastly, hilly, lively, chilly, lovely, friendly, orderly, and lonely are all adjectives.
Some words, such as hard, fast, right, early, and long, have the same form whether they are used as adjectives or adverbs. However, we can always tell how the word is being used because an adjective modifies a noun or pronoun, and an adverb modifies a verb, adjective, or other adverb.
The test was hard. (modifies the noun "test")
It was a fast race. (modifies the noun "race")
I ate an early lunch.
Make a right turn at the corner.
We attended a late meeting.
We must learn to see the difference between an adverb and a predicate adjective. Look at the following sentence:
The dog looks friendly.
It might seem that friendly tells "how" the dog looks. But we remember that we can identify a predicate adjective by replacing a possible linking verb (looks) with a "to be" verb:
The dog was friendly. (friendly dog)
The word friendly describes the dog, not the act of looking. It is an adjective. Compare this to a sentence containing an action verb:
A tiger moves silently.
If we replace an action verb with a "to be" verb, the sentence no longer makes sense:
A tiger is silently? (silently tiger?)
Silently does not describe the tiger. It describes the act of moving. It is an adverb of manner.
Tell whether each of the the italicized words in these sentences are adjectives or adverbs of manner. Also, tell which word or phrase each modifies.